Sunday 3 January 2010

The Barbarians of Middle-Earth: The Haradrim

"But we have our tales too, and news out of the South, you know. In the old days hobbits used to go on their travels now and again. Not that many ever came back, and not that all they said was believed: news from Bree, and not sure as Shiretalk, as the sayings go. But I've heard tales of the big folk down away in the Sunlands. Swertings we call 'em in our tales; and they ride on oliphaunts, 'tis said, when theey fight. They put houses and towers on the oliphauntses backs and all, andd the oliphaunts throw rocks and trees at one another. So when you said "Men out of the South, all in reed and gold," I said "were there any oliphaunts?" For if there was, I was going to take a look, risk or no. But now I don't support I'll ever see an oliphaunt. Maybe there ain't no such a beast."
 - Samwise Gamgee, The Lord of the Rings, Book IV, Chapter III, “The Black Gate is Closed”
 This week, in celebration of Toller’s eleventy-eighth birthday, I’ll look at some of his Men of Darkness, the Haradrim: exploring their appearance, history, culture, historical and Howardian analogues, and their motivations for aligning with Sauron. Far from the faceless, generic “bad guys” a surface analysis would suggest, the Haradrim are very human, and the monster they became in the Third Age was created not just by Sauron, but by the protagonists’ own ancestors. A stark rebuttal of the black-and-white morality some critics level on Tolkien’s peoples, the Haradrim have a long and complicated history.

 Where The Stars Are Strange

‘And further still there are more lands, they say, but the Yellow Face is very hot there, and there are seldom any clouds, and the men are fierce and have dark faces. We do not want to see that land.’
The Lord of the Rings, Book IV, Chapter III, “The Black Gate is Closed”
The name Harad is not properly the name of a country or geographical location: rather, it is a Sindaran term meaning “south.” Harad, then, is a term roughly analogous to “The Deep South”: more a reference to the land’s direction than anything else. Similarly, Rhûn (Sindaran “east”) is the equivalent of “The Far East.” Tolkien never told us what the Haradrim’s name for their land or people was, or indeed any Southron language, with the possible exception of “mûmak,” so most references to Harad and its denizens are viewed through the distorted lense of the Dúnedain. Like the Easterlings, the Haradrim’s language appears to be more akin to Khuzdûl (the tongue of the Dwarves), as opposed to any of the Elvish or western Mannish languages: perhaps they had as close an association with the Dwarves as the Edain did with the Elves.

Harad is beyond the boundaries of the main narrative of The Lord of the Rings, and Tolkien’s world in general. It is a place of mystery and the unknown, with only a few indications of its geography, climate and wildlife. Like Howard never composed a map of his Black Kingdoms, Tolkien never drew one for Harad: this echoes historical cartography of western Europe, where the western lands were depicted with detail, but the far-away lands of Asia and Africa depicted only roughly and approximately.

However, there are still clues to Harad’s climate. The northern boundary of Harad is the River Harnon: north of that is Harondor, or South Gondor, a disputed territory between the peoples. Aragorn’s description of Harad’s night sky indicates that the very constellations are different, strongly suggesting that Harad was in the southern hemisphere. The presence of mega-pachyderms seems to corroborate with that perspective: an exploration on the great mûmak, or oliphaunt, would make an essay in itself.

Southron Genetics

‘More Men going to Mordor,’ he said in a low voice. ‘Dark faces. We have not seen Men like these before, no, Smeagol has not. They are fierce. They have black eyes, and long black hair, and gold rings in their ears; yes, lots of beautiful gold. And some have red paint on their cheeks, and red cloaks; and their flags are red, and the tips of their spears; and they have round shields, yellow and black with big spikes. Not nice; very cruel wicked Men they look. Almost as bad as Orcs, and much bigger.’
The Lord of the Rings, Book IV, Chapter III, “The Black Gate is Closed”

Far from the films’ pseudo-Maoris and 24 carat Samurai, the Haradrim as Tolkien wrote them are instantly evocative of Middle Eastern cultures: Persia, the Turks, the Caliphates, and in particular the Arabs. The Haradrim’s dark skin, eyes and hair indicate a very Arab-esque phenotype. Elephants have been a part of Middle Eastern warfare since practically the dawn of civilization, and persisted in those lands until the Middle Ages. The Persians and pre-Islamic Arabians are especially noted for their fine silken livery, and their gold ornamentation.

There isn’t a singular Hyborian analogue to the Haradrim: rather, many cultures share elements with them. The Hyrkanians share the “barbaric splendour” of vivid silks and gold, as well as having deadly cavalry and elephants: however, the Hyrkanian phenotype is a bit more more Mongol than Arab. The civilized kingdoms of Turan, Iranistan and Vendhya share similarities, though they are more centralized and civilized than the Haradrim appear to be. Perhaps the closest overall are the Desert Shemites: they have the phenotype, gold & colourful livery, as well as bronze scale armor. The only thing they lack is a pachyderm division.

Part of the host at the Pellenor Fields was one of the more mysterious peoples of Middle-earth, referred to as the Men of Far Harad: likened to “half-trolls,” mightily statured, white-eyed, red-tongued, and black skinned. The unfortunate racial implications aside, I think there is sufficient likelihood that these are not truly “men” at all, but one of Sauron’s genetic experiments. Perhaps they were an attempt to create a middle step between men and trolls in the fashion of Saruman’s Goblin-Men, before they went feral upon Sauron’s Second Age demise, and escaped to Far Harad: upon Sauron’s return, they were compelled to rejoin his service. In any case, I prefer to view Tolkien’s use of the term “black” as literal, as Howard did with his Winged Ones and Black Ones, which these “Troll-Men” resemble superficially.

While the Haradrim are not united, they do have “chieftains” and “kings.” The royal standard is a black serpent on a scarlet field: either scarlet is a favorite color among the Southrons, or it is a symbol of the particular tribe or kingdom allied to Sauron, or even the Haradrim’s own display of allegiance to Mordor, whose symbol is the red eye.

Rise of the Haradrim

…these renegades, lords both mighty and evil, for the most part took up their abodes in the southlands far away; yet two there were, Herumor and Fuinur, who rose to power among the Haradrim, a great and cruel people that dwelt in the wide lands south of Mordor beyond the mouths of Anduin.
The Peoples of Middle-earth

The Southrons’ early history is strongly tied to that of their kin, the Easterlings. In the dawn of Arda, the cradle of Men was located in the east, in Hildórien. This is reflective of modern history’s conception of civilization beginning in Mesopotamia, and spreading westward. The first men to venture west were the three houses of the Edain: those that followed would give rise to the Middle-Men and Men of Darkness. The Haradrim were part of that latter group.

Unlike the Easterlings, the Haradrim were not involved much in the Wars of Beleriand: their position far to the south of those apocalyptic battles kept them relatively far from contact. The first mention of the Haradrim as a people occurs in the Second Age, during the period of great naval exploration of Númenor. The Haradrim at this time were tribal, with no knowledge of iron. Contact with the Númenoreans led to cultural exchange, as the Haradrim learned agriculture, metallurgy and technology from the advanced Dúnedain, while the latter gained rich and exotic resources from the tribes.

Unfortunately, this amicability would not last. The Númenoreans became arrogant and complacent, and the generosity gave way to imperialism. The great port of Umbar was established, and used as a source not just for trade, but as a fortress from which the Númenorean lords could demand tributes of wealth, goods and property from the tribes. The tribes resented the Númenoreans’ domination, but the vast deficit in military strength meant there was little hope for a successful rebellion. An interesting Howard comparison can be made: the Chaga of Kush in the Shumballah fragment are of Stygian descent, the Stygians being possible kin of the Imperial Atlanteans. They dominated the indigenous folk, the Gallah, with ill treatment and resentment escalating, until eventually conflict broke out. The Kushites, long tired of the slave raids and territorial posturing of the Stygians, would eventually gain enough strength to challenge them in the twilight of the Hyborian Age, wreaking havoc on their southern borders, and contributing to Stygia’s eventual destruction.

The Haradrim were vulnerable, and looked for a saviour from the hated Men of the West. They thought they had found one in Sauron, who had established a mighty fortress surrounded by flame in Rhûn. Sauron used his guile and persuasive talents to deceive the inland Haradrim, just as he did the Elven-smiths of Eregion: he set himself up as their god. The Haradrim loyal to Sauron grew strong under his influence, building stone architecture and carrying iron weaponry, and entered his service in the military. Worship of Sauron would undoubtedly have sickened the hearts and minds of the Haradrim, leading to a descent into cruelty and savagery.

Fall of the Haradrim

Southward beyond the road lay the main force of the Haradrim, and there their horsemen were gathered about the standard of their chieftain. And he looked out, and in the growing light he saw the banner of the king, and that it was far ahead of the battle with few men about it. Then he was filled with a red wrath and shouted aloud, and displaying his standard, black serpent upon scarlet, he came against the white horse and the green with great press of men; and the drawing of the scimitars of the Southrons was like a glitter of stars.
The Lord of the Rings, Book V, Chapter VI, “The Battle of the Pelennor Fields”
When Sauron’s strength was consolidated, he started to attack the Númenorean settlements on the coast. No doubt the Haradrim were exhilarated: the tide would finally turn, and the Númenoreans would be cast back to the sea whence they came. However, the might of Ar-Pharazon’s forces were all but overwhelming. The Haradrim refused to fight, and Sauron appeared utterly defeated when he surrendered himself to the enemy, who returned triumphant to Númenor. However, this was all part of Sauron’s plan.

Sauron started to set in motion a chain of events that would push the Númenorean/Haradrim conflict to new heights of horror. Sauron subtly corrupted Númenor’s already decadent society: subverting worship of the Valar, influencing the decisions of the king, creating dissent among the people. Sauron encouraged the Númenoreans to war with the Haradrim and other peoples of Middle-earth. Most brutally and monstrously of all, the Númenoreans began to worship Melkor, which involved human sacrifice: they thus had to find victims. Rather than use their own, the Númenoreans enslaved countless Haradrim, and sacrificing them to Melkor. This brutality, above all others, likely contributed to the Haradrim’s hatred for Númenor and, by proxy, their heirs in Gondor.

Eventually, the corruption of Númenor reached its ultimate end. Ar-Pharazon sailed west for the ultimate conquest: Valinor itself. The Valar were outraged, and Númenor was cast under the sea. Though the Faithful had escaped to Middle-earth in time, the corrupted Númenoreans in Umbar and other settlements in Harad survived. The Haradrim’s time to strike had come, and in the resulting reconquest of Harad by its indigenous people, the Black Númenoreans’ power in the region was diminished: they were not wiped out utterly, likely because of their ties to Sauron. No doubt they claimed to have better interest in the Haradrim than the other Númenoreans.

Yet not all Black Númenoreans were absorbed into the Haradrim. Some Black Númenorean strongholds survived, most notably Umbar, and there are likely to still be some mostly-pure Black Númenorean families there up to the Third Age. At least two Black Númenoreans, Herumor and Fuinur, rose to power among the Haradrim. The most likely reason for their being spared by the vengeful Haradrim is that they were servants of Sauron. The Haradrim feared the Dark Lord, and wouldn’t want to incur his wrath, allowing the two Black Númenoreans to exert their authority. This idea of dark sorcerers using the power of a feared god to become leaders of bickering tribes is most potently mirrored by Thugra Khotan in Robert E. Howard’s “Black Colossus.” The rise of Heremor & Fuinur may have resembled it, though unfortunately for Gondor, there was no Conan to stop the Haradrim from marching to the capital itself.

Though Númenor was destroyed, the Haradrim’s vengeance was not complete, for Elendil and his Faithful arrived in what would become Gondor. It’s not difficult to imagine Sauron spinning Elendil as the true “Black Númenoreans,” in comparison to the true “Faithful” of Umbar, to the Haradrim. This culminated in the War of the Last Alliance, where the Númenoreans and Noldor united to assault Sauron’s stronghold. Many Haradrim were counted among Sauron’s allies, and considering the siege of Barad-dur lasted seven years, they did a great job preventing the breach of the fortress.

The Wrath of Gondor

‘Aye, curse the Southrons!’ said Damrod. ”Tis said that there were dealings of old between Gondor and the kingdoms of Harad in the Far South; though there was never friendship. In those days our bounds were away south beyond the mouths of Anduin, and Umbar, the nearest of their realms, acknowledged our sway. But that is long since. ‘Tis many lives of Men since any passed to or fro beteen us. Now of late we have learned that the Enemy has been among them, and they are gone over to Him, or back to Him–they were ever ready to His will–as have so many also in the east. I doubt not that the days of Gondor are numbered, and the walls of Minas Tirith are doomed, so great is His strength and malice.’
The Lord of the Rings, Book IV, Chapter IV, “Of Herbs & Stewed Rabbit”

With Sauron defeated by Elendil and Gil-Galad, and the One Ring cut from his hand by Isildur, one could imagine the Haradrim falling back into anarchy and chaos. Yet the Haradrim’s hatred for Gondor was ingrained into their psyche, and even in Sauron’s absense over the majority of the Third Age, the Kings of Harad warred with Gondor. In the year 933, Gondor gained a significant advantage in Earnil’s capture of Umbar, the northernmost and strongest of Haradrian fortresses. The siege was brutal and long, a full 35 years, and was only broken by a massive army led by Earnil’s grandson Ciryaher. It was a disaster for the Haradrim: not only had they lost a major position, they were forced into delivering the kings’ sons into Gondor, to live as hostages.

Gondor had the upper hand for three centuries, until the Kin-Strife: a bloody civil war between Gondorian usurpers and the legitimate bloodline. The rebels fled to Umbar, and formed a city-state independent of Gondor proper: eventually they allied and intermingled with the Haradrim, forming a new ethnoi known as the Corsairs. This new ally turned the tables, and soon Gondor lost more land to the Haradrim, till the borders were pushed back north of Harnon, and Harondor became a lawless and savage wilderness torn by skirmishes and battles between Gondor and Harad.

Following the reconquest of Umbar and northernmost Near Harad, the Haradrim began to regain their strength. An alliance of Corsairs and Haradrim started to take the fight to Gondor’s coastal regions, including an attack on Pelargir. Two kings of Gondor were slain in the resulting conflicts: though Umbar was once again conquered by Telumehtar Umbardacil, it was regained by the Haradrim within a few years.

An unexpected ally came from the east: the Wainriders of Rhûn initially warred with Gondor and the Haradrim alike, but eventually joined forces with the latter and the Variags of Khand. A concerted attack on Gondor by the allies–the Wainriders from the northeast, the Haradrim from the south–was undertaken in 1944, though the forces were defeated individually before they could unite. The Corsairs allied with the Dunlendings, assisting them in their wars against Rohan, but that too ended in defeat.

After centuries of silence, the machinations of Sauron started to turn once again. Sauron sent emissaries to Harad, inciting them to invade further. Soon, Harondor was under Haradrim control, and there were frequent raids into Ithilien. The Haradrian threat was so great, Gondor requested aid from Rohan: the Battle of Poros may have gone very differently had Folcwine not sent a mighty host of Rohirrim, a battle which also claimed the lives of his sons. Slowly but surely, the Haradrim were gaining strength, with each defeat at the hands of Gondor being more and more desperately fought. A victory seemed only a matter of time.

Red Serpent and Star-Eagle

‘I have had a hard life and a long; and the leagues that lie between here and Gondor are a small part in the count of my journeys. I have crossed many mountains and many rivers, and trodden many plains, even into the far countries of Rhûn and Harad where the stars are strange.’
–Aragorn, The Lord of the Rings, Book II, Chapter II, “The Council of Elrond”

Sauron made his return to Mordor in 2942, and immediately started to amass vast armies of orcs, trolls, goblins and wargs for his great war. The Haradrim redoubled their efforts: with Sauron at their side, and Gondor greatly diminished by centuries of war and crippling inner conflict, the vengeance of Harad was assured. The Corsairs began to construct a mighty fleet with which to devastate the coasts: luckily, this time, Gondor had a “Conan,” an individual who could change the course of history.

That “Conan” was at the time known as Thorongil, “Eagle of the Star”: better known as Aragorn. The heir of Isildur saw the danger the Corsair fleet presented, and set out on a daring sabotage. In a suprise attack, he burned the fleet in its own harbor, slaying the Captain of the Haven, and scuttling Sauron’s designs. As noted in a previous entry, it’s an intriguing inversion of an episode in Conan’s life: Conan too burns a great fleet in its dock, but he acts on behalf of the corsairs menacing Stygia’s coast instead.

Aragorn did not just spend time in Umbar: according to the above quotation, Aragorn also travelled in Harad, long enough to note its cartography. Why did Aragorn embark on such a dangerous journey? This was decades before the hunt for Gollum, so he can’t be looking for the tragic ringbearer. It could have been a reconnaissance mission, to ascertain the Haradrim’s strength, but I can’t help but wonder why the Dúnedain would allow their chieftain to put himself in such danger when another scout would do the job.

My theory is that Aragorn went to Harad to incite rebellion among the tribes: though many of the Haradrim were loyal to Sauron, many did so out of fear, and a desire for vengeance on Gondor. It’s possible, likely even, that there was constant fighting among the tribes, with independent tribes rejecting Sauron, but being crushed or dominated by the Mordor Confederates. While Rhûn had the Blue Wizards sent to aid the Easterlings opposed to Sauron (whether they succeeded or not is beyond the bounds of this article, but will definitely be explored in a future “Easterlings” post), Harad had no such forces for good–at least, that we know of. Aragorn could then be that ambassador sent to give aid and inspiration to the Free Peoples of the South. While it’s impossible to say if Aragorn had any noticeable impact on the Haradrim, Tolkien noted that the Blue Wizards had a vital role in undermining Sauron’s eastern strongholds:
“But the other two Istari were sent for a different purpose. Morinethar and Rómestámo (Darkness-slayer and East-helper) Their task was to circumvent Sauron: to bring help to the few tribes of Men that had rebelled from Melkor-worship, to stir up rebellion… and after his first fall to search out his hiding ( in which they failed ) and to cause ( ? dissension and disarray ) among the dark East… They must have had very great influence on the history of the Second age and Third age in weakening and disarraying the forces of East… who would both in the Second age and Third age otherwise have… outnumbered the West.”
The Peoples of Middle-earth
I like to think that Aragorn had some impact on the Haradrim: perhaps the mighty host that rocked the Pelennor Fields would have been larger, even victorious, if not for the efforts of Haradrim freedom fighters, inspired by the mysterious, tall wanderer from the distant north.

The Battle for Middle-earth

Hard fighting and long labour they had still; for the Southrons were bold men and grim, and fierce in despair and the Easterlings were strong and war-hardened and asked for no quarter. And so in this place and that, by burned homestead or barn, upon hillock or mound, under wall or on field, still they gathered and rallied and fought until the day wore away.
The Lord of the Rings, Book V, Chapter VI: The Battle of the Pelennor Fields

Haradrim were part of the earth-shaking host led by the Witch-King in the assault on Osgiliath, and successfully captured the eastern half. Though the Rangers of Ithilien managed to ambush a few companies on the Harad Road, eventually the invasion was too strong for them to hinder, and they fell back to the western portion of Osgiliath. The Corsairs ravaged the coast, captured Pelargir, and beseiged many of the provinces, preventing them from sending aid to Minas Tirith.

It’s interesting to note that the Haradrim of the War of the Ring do not have the iron of the Second Age taught to them by the Númenoreans: rather, their armor consists of “brazen scales.” One wonders if there’s a deficiency of iron in Harad, with the Haradrim’s iron provided by the Númenoreans and Sauron himself, and no ore deposits of their own. Eventually the scarcity of iron meant the knowledge of ironworks was forgotten, leading to the bronze-clad host of the Third Age.

At the Siege of Minas Tirith, a host of 18,000, the greatest Haradrim army ever amassed, roared across the Anduin. Again Faramir and his Rangers attempted to stall them, but it was futile. Faramir himself was nearly slain by a Southron arrow, though he managed to deal a death blow to a Haradrim champion. The Rohirrim arrived just in time to assist the beleaguered Gondorians, and their forces were superior to that of the Haradrim cavalry: however, the Haradrim were cunning. The horses of Rohan would not charge the unfamiliar mûmakil, and the horsemen could not get close enough to deal any damage to the thick-skinned monsters: the Haradrim used the mûmakil as mobile towers, flanking the Rohirrim, and eventually surrounding them.

However, Aragorn and reinforcements from the provinces arrived, and after a full day of fighting, the battle was over. The glittering host of the Haradrim was destroyed, the mighty mûmakil lying in lakes of blood, the scarlet livery of the South mingling with the crimson ruin of their men. There were still Haradrim at the Black Gate, but not in anywhere near the number at Minas Tirith. With the final ruin of Sauron, the orcs and trolls fled in terror and confusion, Sauron’s domination of their minds severed. Some of the Easterlings surrendered immediately. But the proud Southrons did not flee or admit defeat, and with grim fatalism, they fought on, despite the destruction of their god and would-be protector. The Southrons battled on until they could fight no more, and were subdued.

And the King pardoned the Easterlings that had given themselves up, and sent them away free, and he made peace with the peoples of Harad; and the slaves of Mordor he released and gave to them all the lands about Lake Núrnen to be their own.
- The Lord of the Rings, Book VI, Chapter V, ‘The Steward and the King’

After the War of the Ring, for the first time in–literal–Ages, there was peace between Gondor and the Haradrim. The spell of Sauron was broken: the Southrons’ loathing may have been almost all-consuming, but without the lies, the intimidation, and the kindling of evil in the Haradrim’s hearts, their minds were more open to the truth. Eventually the Haradrim trusted the Reunited Kingdom, enough to call upon them to assist in putting down uprisings of Sauron worshipers within their own lands. Aragorn and Eomer themselves rode down personally to ensure the peace and goodwill between the Men of the West and South persisted from then on:

For though Sauron had passed, the hatreds and evils that he bred had not died, and the King of the West had many enemies to subdue before the White Tree could grow in peace. And wherever King Elessar went with war King Éomer went with him; and beyond the Sea of Rhûn and on the far fields of the South the thunder of the cavalry of the Mark was heard, and the White Horse upon Green flew in many winds until Éomer grew old.
- The Lord of the Rings, Appendix A II, ‘The House of Eorl’

The Question of Evil

It was Sam’s first view of a battle of Men against Men, and he did not like it much. He was glad that he could not see the dead face. He wondered what the man’s name was and where he came from; and if he was really evil of heart, or what lies or threats had led him on the long march from his home; and if he would not really rather have stayed there in peace…
The Lord of the Rings, Book IV, Chapter IV, “Of Herbs & Stewed Rabbit”

It’s hard to blame the Haradrim for falling to Sauron. The Enemy was a master manipulator, who fooled even the wisest beings of Middle-earth. Even Galadriel was taken in by the promises of the Ring. What’s more, their hatred for the Númenoreans is entirely justifiable: they were betrayed by a people acting as benefactors, who instead became conquerors, and eventually kidnappers and murderers. The crimes of the Númenoreans, even before Sauron’s capture, are heinous enough to make the Haradrim’s plight highly sympathetic. Had the Númenoreans themselves not become arrogant and complacent, it’s likely that some of the Haradrim tribes would have been powerful allies, rather than the resentful rebels ripe for recruitment by darkness.

Are the Haradrim barbarians? Certainly: though they have kings, they consist of many tribes and chiefdoms. They have rude settlements of stone, and have not gained the secret of steel for themselves, wielding spears and arrows, and wearing bronze armor. Their high placement of honor and battlefield prowess in their society is similar to the warrior ethos of a great many barbarian peoples, with the savagery and cruelty that comes with worship of dark things.

At almost every mention of the Haradrim, Tolkien mentions their “cruelty.” Given how the Númenoreans treated the Haradrim under Sauron’s hand, perhaps the Monster of Harad that assailed Gondor for millennia was a case of the Sins of the Father visited upon the son. The reconciliation at the end of The Lord of the Rings was most heartening, as it proved that for all the centuries of hatred and bloodshed, the Haradrim were not inherently evil. Were it the Haradrim who went forth to Beleriand first, and the Edain stayed in Hildórien, who’s to say which tribe would really become Men of Darkness?

The captains bowed their heads; and when they looked up again, behold! their enemies were flying and the power of Mordor was scattering like dust in the wind… But the Men of Rhûn and of Harad, Easterling and Southron, saw the ruin of their war and the great majesty and glory of the Captains of the West. And those that were deepest and longest in evil servitude, hating the West, and yet were men, proud and bold, in their turn now gathered themselves for a last stand of desperate battle.
The Lord of the Rings, Book V, Chapter X, “The Black Gate”
The dawnlight glinted on peaked helmets pouring in a steady stream through the broad arch, on the bright housings of the chargers. This would be a battle of horsemen, such as is possible only in the lands of the east. The riders flowed through the gates like a river of steel–somber figures in black and silver mail, with their curled beards and hooked noses, and their inexorable eyes in which glimmered the fatality of their race–the utter lack of doubt or of mercy.
–”Black Colossus,” Robert E. Howard

No comments:

Post a Comment